# Were Numbers Invented or Discovered?

Let's explore the eternal question: were numbers invented or discovered?

Source simple-newyorker.blogspot.com

## When Were Numbers Invented?

### The Prehistoric Era

Numbers have been a fundamental part of human life for thousands of years. The earliest humans used tally marks and notches on bones, stones, and sticks to keep track of goods, animals, and people. These marks were quite simple and only counted as far as the person could keep track in their head. The prehistoric people needed a way to keep track of things, especially when they moved across vast territories looking for food and shelter. These marks were an easy way for people to keep track of the items they had and what they needed to survive.

### The Emergence of Number Systems

The Sumerians, who lived in Mesopotamia, are believed to be the first civilization to use a written number system around 4,000 BCE. The Sumerians created a base 60 numbering system, which allowed them to count up to 60 using only two symbols, a vertical wedge and a horizontal wedge. This system helped with trade and commerce as it allowed the Sumerians to record their transactions, including the exchange of goods and services, accurately and efficiently. This was a revolutionary invention that paved the way for the evolution of number systems across different cultures.

### Advancements in Number Systems

The Egyptians and Greeks made impressive advancements in number systems, each uniquely contributing to the development of mathematics. The Egyptians used the decimal system, which allowed them to count and divide things easily. They had hieroglyphs representing numbers and could represent one million in hieroglyphs. They used a symbol for zero, but it was more of a placeholder rather than a separate entity. The Greeks, on the other hand, developed a numbering system that was more advanced than the Sumerians and Egyptians. They pioneered geometric proofs, which helped them solve mathematical problems and allowed them to explore the concept of infinity. They also championed the concept of zero as a separate entity in mathematics.

In conclusion, numbers are ubiquitous in our daily lives, from the basics of counting to the complex mathematical concepts used in science and technology. The existence of numbers dates back to the prehistoric era, and through the evolution of different civilizations, number systems have become more advanced and sophisticated. Each society built on the knowledge of its predecessors, and this has helped shape the way we think about and use numbers today.

It is believed that the first keys were invented by the ancient Egyptians. The keys were used to secure valuables and were made from wood and other materials.

## The Development of Mathematics

### Mathematics in Ancient civilizations

Mathematics has been an integral part of human civilization for thousands of years. The ancient Greeks, Egyptians, and Chinese all made significant contributions to the field of mathematics.The Greeks, in particular, were known for their advanced knowledge of geometry. The famous mathematician Euclid wrote a book on geometry called "Elements" around 300 BCE, which would become a foundational text for mathematicians for centuries to come.The Egyptians, on the other hand, used mathematics primarily for practical purposes such as measuring land and building pyramids. They are credited with inventing a system of hieroglyphs known as "demotic numerals" to represent numbers.The Chinese also made important contributions to mathematics, developing a counting rod system around 300 BCE that allowed them to perform mathematical calculations.### The Arabic Numeric System

Perhaps the most significant development in the history of mathematics was the invention of the Arabic numeric system. This system, which uses ten digits and zero, was actually developed in India before being adopted by Islamic mathematicians.The Arabic numeric system revolutionized mathematics by making it easier to perform calculations of all kinds. The use of a consistent base 10 system made addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division much simpler and more intuitive.The Arabic numeric system also allowed for the development of algebra, which was invented by the Persian mathematician Al-Khwarizmi in the 9th century. Algebra uses letters and symbols to represent unknown quantities, making it possible to solve complex equations.### The Renaissance and the Birth of Modern Mathematics

The Renaissance was a period of tremendous intellectual and artistic growth in Europe, and it was also a time of significant advancements in mathematics.One of the most famous mathematicians of the Renaissance was Isaac Newton, who developed the principles of calculus in the late 17th century. Calculus is a branch of mathematics that deals with the study of rates of change and the accumulation of small changes over time.Another important mathematician of the Renaissance was Gottfried Leibniz, who independently developed calculus around the same time as Newton. Leibniz also made significant contributions to the development of binary code, which would become the basis for modern computer programming.In conclusion, the history of mathematics stretches back thousands of years and encompasses countless advancements and discoveries. From the geometry of the ancient Greeks to the algebra of the Islamic Golden Age to the calculus of the Renaissance, mathematics has played a vital role in shaping human history and our understanding of the world around us.Numbers have been used by humans since ancient times. They were invented as a way to measure, count and calculate various things like time and distance.

## Numbers Today

### The Use of Numbers in Daily Life

Numbers, fundamentally, play a significant role in our everyday lives. We use numbers to tell time, keep track of our finances, and measure weight and distance. In essence, numbers make everyday activities more convenient and efficient. We use them to count how many items we need to buy, how many minutes have passed since the beginning of a meeting, and how much we weigh before and after a workout. Even tasks that we may not realize involve numbers, like grocery shopping or baking, are entirely dependent on our ability to comprehend numbers.

### The Digital Age

Over time, numbers have become even more crucial with the advancement of technology. The digital age has paved the way for changes in the way we use numbers. At present, digital numbers, such as those used in binary code and computer programming, have become an essential part of our lives. We use these numbers to interact with the digital world, from displaying the time on our phones to storing data to navigate through GPS systems. Without digital numbers, technology, as we know today, may not have even been possible.

### The Future of Numbers

Mathematics is an ever-evolving field, and research and development are always ongoing. Today, we are exploring how to expand the use and understanding of numbers in different industries and fields. These efforts aim to increase the efficiency and accuracy of our daily lives. Some ongoing developments include the integration of numbers in artificial intelligence, quantum computing, and more. As we look towards the future, there is great excitement regarding the potential discovery of new properties and patterns in numbers. Understanding these patterns could potentially improve the accuracy, speed, and effectiveness of a wide range of processes.

If you want to learn more about the history of technology and innovation, check out our pillar article on the subject.

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