# Who Revolutionized Math? The Inventor of the Adding Machine

Discover the Genius Behind the Adding Machine - the Revolutionary Pioneer of Mathematics

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## Who Invented the Adding Machine?

### Early History of Calculation

Calculation tools have been used for thousands of years to aid in various mathematical operations. The abacus is an example of one of the earliest calculation tools that has been in use for centuries. The use of pebbles, knots, and stones was also invented to perform calculations.### Addition and Subtraction Devices

Several devices were invented to perform basic calculations such as addition and subtraction. The earliest true adding machine dates back to the 17th century, invented by Blaise Pascal which was called the Pascaline. It was a device that could add and subtract small numbers.### Development and Innovation

Many people worked to develop better adding machines over the next few centuries. Simple manual devices were created while others used more complex mechanisms like gears and levers. Around the early 1800s, adding machines were starting to look more like the mechanical calculators familiar today. An early example is the Odhner Arithmometer, invented in the late 19th century.Charles Xavier Thomas invented the arithmometer, a mechanical device that could perform four basic arithmetic operations. In 1820, this device was invented in France and was regarded as the first mass-manufactured calculating machine. It was popular because of its low cost and reliability.William Burroughs invented the first accurate adding and listing machine in 1885, which he called “The Calculating Machine”. It had a keyboard and was designed to be used for businesses, allowing them to keep precise records of transactions.Herman Hollerith developed an electronic device in the late 1880s that used punched cards to perform calculations. It was initially devised to calculate the United States census data efficiently, and it worked by using small holes that represented data.In summary, the history of the adding machine spans thousands of years, with people continually innovating and improving both manual and mechanical tools. While Blaise Pascal invented the first true adding machine in the 17th century, the device evolved over time, with many people involved in the development of more complex mechanisms such as gears and levers. Today, the electronic calculator has largely replaced mechanical adding machines, but they still have their place in the history of mathematics and technology.## Major Players in Adding Machine History

### William Seward Burroughs Sr.

When it comes to the history of adding machines, William Seward Burroughs Sr. is a name that cannot be ignored. He patented his first calculating machine back in 1885 and went on to establish the Burroughs Adding Machine company - a leading player in the office equipment industry.

Burroughs’ original machine was not the first of its kind, but it was the first to have a full keyboard and a printer, which was significant at the time. Up until then, most adding machines were operated by pulling a lever, which made entry very slow. Burroughs’ machines were able to print results as they computed them, which was much faster and more efficient than previous models.

Burrough’s company went on to introduce numerous innovations in both adding machines and other office equipment. Despite the dominance of electronic calculators in the later part of the 20th century, Burroughs Adding Machine company continued to manufacture adding machines until 1983.

### Victor and Carl Friden

Another important duo in adding machine history is the Friden brothers. Victor and Carl Friden were Swedish-American inventors who founded the Friden Calculating Machine company in the United States. Initially, the brothers focused on designing machines for scientific calculations, but they soon turned their attention to adding machines.

The machines developed by Victor and Carl Friden were especially popular in the mid-twentieth century. Their machines were known for being fast, reliable, and easy to operate. One of their most famous models was the Friden STW-10, which combined a ten-key electronic calculator with a printing function. The STW-10 was especially popular in the 1960s and 1970s, before electronic calculators became more widespread.

### Electronic Calculators

In the mid-20th century, electronic calculators began to replace mechanical adding machines. Texas Instruments and Hewlett-Packard were two of the earliest manufacturers to introduce these new devices. The first electronic calculators were still quite bulky, however, and they were expensive to produce, which limited their popularity in the early years.

It was not until the 1970s that electronic calculators became widely available and affordable. These calculators were much smaller and lighter than their predecessors, making them much more portable. They also had advanced features like memory functions and scientific notations, making them incredibly versatile for both professional and personal use.

In Summary, William Seward Burroughs Sr., Victor, and Carl Friden, were all instrumental in the evolution of adding machines. Their inventions helped to revolutionize business and scientific computing, and set the stage for the development of electronic calculators - a device that today is so ubiquitous that it is hard to imagine life without it.

## The Legacy of Adding Machines Today

### Use in Accounting and Finance

Adding machines are still in use in modern accounting and finance. Even though electronic calculators and computers have replaced them in most cases, adding machines are still preferred in certain situations. For instance, when bookkeepers and accountants need to keep a paper record of their calculations, adding machines come in handy. This is because they print out a hard copy of the calculations, which is helpful for audit purposes and for keeping records that can be referenced later. In many institutions, especially those that have been using adding machines for decades, bookkeepers and accountants continue to use them because they are familiar with how to operate and troubleshoot them.

### Collectors and Hobbyists

Old adding machines have become popular collector's items, with some models fetching high prices at auction. These machines offer an interesting insight into the history of technology and are prized for their aesthetic beauty. For many collectors, part of the appeal is in the nostalgia of owning a piece of technology that was once widely used. Some even display their collection in museums or in their homes, proudly showing off the intricate mechanics of these machines. For hobbyists, restoring an old adding machine and getting it working again can be a satisfying challenge. The popularity of collecting adding machines has helped to preserve the legacy of these machines, even as they become less and less common in everyday use.

### The Role of Adding Machines in Computing History

Adding machines played an important role in the transition from manual calculation to electronic computing. They were the precursor to early computers and paved the way for modern digital calculators. In the early days of computing, adding machines were used to perform calculations on punch cards, which were then fed into mainframe computers. These mainframe computers were then used to process large amounts of data and perform complex calculations. Today, adding machines are regarded as mechanical curiosities, but they were once a significant part of the field of computing. Studying their history can offer insights into how these technologies developed and influenced one another.

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